Tuesday, February 12, 2013

HISTORY. Limerick. ADARE. Ruins and Headstones. Ecclesiastical History. Tree 10; Gravestone 2.

Ruins and Headstones:  Ecclesiastical History
With an update 2014 

Theology vs. reality.  Reality wins.
Adare, Limerick
Monastic Traditions, Before and After Augustinian Reforms

Irish History Timeline focusing on Post-1150 ACE

For earlier era Timeline Pre-1150, see From Book of Kells to Synod of Kells.  

At issue is our perspective on time itself, institutional persistence regardless of changing needs and facts, and Power. Ruins, ruins.  How to place any of them in a chronology that makes sense.  We found this site, and recommend NewYork's Channel 13, broadcasting, timeline at http://www.wnet.org/pressroom/release.php?get=106

1.  Ruins -- Ecclesiastical Ireland. Adare's Friary is an example

We were here on our return to Shannon airport, but include it with the rest of Limerick, where we began. Is this so:  Time always wins. Humans who pit themselves against Nature and The Trees have a heavy lift.
2.  Adare as part of the Roman Christian Gregorian Reforms, the era after 1100 AD or so.
  • Ireland's ecclesiastical ruins may look alike, but their eras, and what they signify, differ:  Christianity was not all of one cloth.  Irish engaged Christianity their way first, before Rome came along after its split with the Eastern Christians, the Orthodox.  Irish Christianity, think St. Patrick, St. Finnian.  Their examples led to the monastic, contemplative, individualistic, creative phase to, say, 1100. With Gregorian Reforms on the Continent;  and the jurisdiction of Rome being asserted with its administrations and armies and Holy Roman Emperors, enforcements and regimentation became more important.  And there was no longer choice. That seems to be broadly true.

The 11th Century Gregorian Reforms turned the face of Christianity from withdrawing from the world, the deeply meditative, the deeply spiritual ascetic; to a new philosophy. Get out there and change the world; or, in the alternative, become a monk and totally live within the monastery, no or little contact with the outside world; and only with strict permissions and limits.

  "The Gregorian reform encourages the practice of Christian warfare in the pursuit of providing 'right order in the world' and establishes religious enthusiasm in all of Christendom."

See http://usna.edu/Users/history/abels/hh315/timeline%20gregorian%20reform.htm, Timeline entry at 1073 AD.

So what? What difference does that make to Ireland, and this friary?

It makes a difference because the Pope's increasing militance and crusades and moneyraising and identity forging on the Continent led directly to the invasion of the Anglo Normans in Ireland, and they never left.

Look back, as you think of the tree of the papacy overcoming over time even the very stones that leaned on it for support.

This begins with the 1100's;  needed is a timeline from far earlier, from St. Patrick in the 400's.  

Pope Adrian IV, in 1155, issued a Bull authorizing King Henry of England to invade Ireland to shape it up according to Roman Church (HRE) standards.  Why?

1. Not only did Henry want this power in his pocket, he and the Pope both had money to be made.  In exchange for the permission, the Pope got well paid, very well paid. The "Laudibiliter" provided for a king of tax to be paid to him, per capita, see http://www.thewildgeese.com/pages/adrianiv.htmlSee http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/source/geraldwales1.asp

2.  But Henry had been himself petitioned by one Dermot, a king in Ireland, for help to get his lands back, from those who deposed him, after his affair with a lovely lady someone else's wife, is that so?

So, invasion authorized, an instigating event was very human indeed, it fit the Pope and the English King to indulge, and so they did.  What a change, for Christianity and the world because the new Christianity was a totally different entity, as a centralized, power institution.

Henry did so some 16 years later, launching the Anglo-Norman invasion of this nation. In came Roman regimentation, regulations and rules, back in the 1100's.  And, of course, Henry paid the Church for the privilege, an ongoing income stream to the Pope's coffers in exchange for the Bull.  FN 1

Back to Adare.

So, this old stone, now overwelmed, is on the grounds of a Franciscan Friary, not in the early tradition of contemplation and dedication, but  built by the Earl of Kildare 1464-1466, a building that was part of the institutional sweep after the age of isolated monastic activities, see http://www.discoverireland.ie/Arts-Culture-Heritage/adare-franciscan-friary/49921.  The date of the stone itself? Have to go back.

Nothing is simple.  What causes what? History of the Anglo - Norman Invasion of Ireland.

This step backward from religion into militance authorizing , was introduced earlier as well:  permission to kill unbelievers or whoever else without penalty did not start with Adrian.

a.   Pope Leo IV,  http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/leo4-ind850.aspin 850 granted the indulgence to the Franks, Pope John in 878, a few years after Charlemagne's "crusades" against the northern people of Europe, massacre at  Sachsenhain in 872 est.

b.  Pope John VIII, see http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/john2-ind878.asp; If you die in these battles, you will have eternal life, your sins forgiven. -

c.  Read Pope Urban - "All who die by the way, whether by land or by sea, or in battle against the pagans, shall have immediate remission of sins". See http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/urban2-5vers.asp.     

We still live with the 3 conditions that make murder permissible  --

So the policy evolved. Killling is fine, indulgences for the killer, dispensation, forgiveness of sins, eternal life --

 " * * * the introduction of a new ideology of Christian warfare in which wars undertaken --
1) under the authority of the pope,
2) for the protection or in defense of the Church and Christianity, and
3) under a solemn vow would be regarded by the Church as meritorious acts akin to pilgrimages and earn the participants indulgences (remission of the temporal penalties of sin)."

See http://usna.edu/Users/history/abels/hh315/timeline%20gregorian%20reform.htm
It is time to put violence in perspective. The Vikings have been long maligned.  They were not the first at all to find the vulnerability of monasteries and churches. And the Roman Christian policy of invasion and murder at home and abroad if the target does not subject himself or herself to the Pope's law, makes the Vikings look like nursery school, is that so?

Does anyone care any more? Irish history, old stuff.
Now all of that, representing the New Ecclesiastical Enforcement Order, is a ruin surrounded by a golf course.  There is another "Trinitarian" Monastery from 1293 noted at http://www.myguideireland.com/adare-heritage-centre-and-desmond-castle-tour, the "White Abbey" because monks wore white robes; that may have signified Cistercians, see http://www.sacred-destinations.com/reference/cistercians. It later the was known as the"Black Abbey" when it became Benedictine (Augustinian?) and the monks wore black robes. 

Are these at this White-Black friary one and the same or different from this Franciscan Friary?  Ireland's ruins have more to say than that.  So much of history is lost with such brief references. 

FN 1 When did these large ecclesiastical Orders come to Ireland?  It wasn't until 1100 AD. 

Christianity was well-established in Ireland without the Roman overlay.  Did creativity stop with the overlay?  See the chronology:



432 AD.  Christianity comes to Ireland, through Patrick? See the timeline at http://www.wnet.org/pressroom/release.php?get=106.  Patrick dies 492, but leaves documentation in form of a letter and other items

550-650 AD.  Irish monasticism, a rural, highly varied expression of Christianity, expands and flowers

563 AD - Columcille, known as St. Columba, founds the monastery at Iona, and it becomes a focal point for outreach, Christian missionary work in Scotland and elsewhere in Europe

700 AD - Many monasteries become very large, wealthy and influential; Armagh as the center of Irish Christianity; Ui Niall becomes High King, and Armagh set as center of Irish Christianity and civil culture

794 AD - first Viking raids -- but this does not disrupt Irish Christianity because starting years before, the monasteries were being raided by other Irish, for their wealth, and also raided by other monasteries. http://www.deremilitari.org/resources/articles/fitzpatrick.htm

800 AD - flowering of Irish scholarship, in Ireland and Europe much sought after, even by Charlemagne

820-847 AD - Bishop of Cashel raids other monasteries and attacks other abbots (he is Feidlimid Mac Crimthainn and he is also the King of Munster) in an effort to get Ui Niall off the throne and become High King

841 - Vikings settle in Dublin, make alliances with some Kings; raid and settle at Wexford, Waterford, Limerick.

941 - Brian Boru becomes King, focuses power much as European Kings had earlier

976 - King Brian Boru routs the Vikings from Limerick

1014 - Brian is killed at Clontarf near Dublin, and go on to modern times at http://www.wnet.org/pressroom/release.php?get=106

1054 - Great Schism --  Rome was now on its own, had to build up authority

"Schism between Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox Churches over 1) the Patriarch’s refusal to recognize the primacy of the Pope, and 2) question of the nature of the Trinity (“filioque” controversy). Humbert of Silva Candida excommunicates Patriarch Michael; Michael responds by excommunicating Humbert and Pope Leo IX (who had died three months earlier, which was not then known in Constantinople)" Fair use, from http://usna.edu/Users/history/abels/hh315/timeline%20gregorian%20reform.htm

4.  The "Reform" (read "Dictatorship") of the Irish Church by Rome

 So when was it that the early Christians were "reformed"  by the Roman Catholics?  Read the timeline -- http://usna.edu/Users/history/abels/hh315/timeline%20gregorian%20reform.htm

Note that the coming of early monks sent by Augustine monks (Augustinians as an Order did not arrive until the 1200's, see http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac70.) 

This signaled "reforms" ordered by the Roman Church as to the wayward, individualist and compassionate loose-organization of the early Irish Christians.  Monasteries did indeed improve agriculture, provide for scriptoria to preserve and copy books, but they also found "last rites" as a sacrament an ideal way to get property -- How rich did they then become?  " In England they owned one fifth of all its cultivable land." Nice.  See http://www.metanexus.net/magazine/ArticleDetail/tabid/68/id/10539/Default.aspx

Earlier monasteries had wealth, see the raids by other monasteries and abbots and other Irish as to the earlier structures, http://www.deremilitari.org/resources/articles/fitzpatrick.htm, but nothing like the wealth that was possible for the church now through the "reforms."

5.  The power of discipline, conformity

Find the rules of differing Orders:

Read the Rule of St. Benedict at http://www.osb.org/rb/text/toc.html At what cost was that regimentation, how like political dictatorships as to individual thought? Is that so?

 The sensory deprivation of living in cells, minimal diet, and sleep deprivation of up to do services on rigid schedules, "rules" - today we would call the process  brainwashing.

Compare the Rule of St. Francis at http://www.osb.org/rb/text/toc.html.  Somewhat more humana, but still not representing the pre-Augustinian reform Christianity in Ireland. Now, which Order would the Tea Party support?


1098 A.D. - Cistercian monastic order founded on the Continent, see http://usna.edu/Users/history/abels/hh315/timeline%20gregorian%20reform.htm

Cistercian Rule:  Strict obedience to the Benedictine Rule (need to clarify);
  • "separation from secular influence (no peasants serving the monastery;
  • rather lay brothers--peasants in orders, who served God by manual labor.)
  • Simplicity--churches and other buildings unadorned and undecorated; crucifixes only of cheap, plain material--no gold and silver ornamentation.
  • Accepted only uncultivated land.
  • Refused oblates.
  • Had to be 16 to become a monk."

 1100 A.D. --  Rome begins a propaganda effort against the Irish Christians.  On the continent, Gregory (the Gregorian Reforms ) change the Church into a mold controlled by Rome.  All this is summarized from the chronology at http://www.wnet.org/pressroom/release.php?get=106.  No more independence to be tolerated as to the Irish Church

1113 A.D. - Cistercian Order acquires vast new properties under Bernard de Clairvaux. Number of houses grew from 5 to 393 at the time of his death in 1153.  In 1143, Cistercians come to Ireland.
c. 1100 - 1150 A.D. -- The Diocesan model arrives to control Irish Christianity.  Irish Christianity had focused on a family-owned system, and that now begins to die out -- and with it, the unique spirituality of the Irish Church. Enter Rules, firm Creeds, regulations, inclusions, exclusions. Control. Jurisdiction by Rome. 

1142 A.D. -- Cistercians come to County Meath. Now starts the influx of monastic Orders from the Continent to finish the job: Cistercians at Mellifont, County Meath, are first.  

1152 A.D. -- Synod of Kells. A new diocesan form is imposed on the Irish church, with the installation of four archbishops.  Hierarchy, hierarchy. And, from here on, women are barred from holding title of "bishop" and there are no more hereditary successions.  Celibacy is imposed as well and required for ordination.  These measures were already in effect on the Continent.

  • As an aside "Dermot MacMurrough, King of Leinster, abducts Dervorgilla, the wife of Tiernan Ua Ruairc. Dermot and Dervorgilla are said to be lovers and the whole of Ireland learns of the affair much to Ua Ruairc's embarrassment."  See Thirteen site.

1155 A.D. -- Invasion.

Pope Adrian IV is the only Pope to be from England, and he issues a "bull" allowing Henry II the King to invade Ireland to ensure Irish conformity to Roman church rule. Henry does so later, when it is more convenient as to his other wars.

c. 1160s A.D. -- Back to the scandal. Dermot the abductor wants to be High King, but so might his rival  Rory O'Connor. Rory wins out.  He was allied with the cuckold, Ua Ruairc, and Ua Rairc seeks revenge and manages to get Dermot removed as King in Leinster.

1167 A.D. -- Dermot runs to Henry II for help, and Henry II sends an army to help Dermot get his Kingship back in Leinster.  The Anglo-Normans accordingly arrive, and do not go home again.  First the invitation, then the invasion. Fine excuse, blessed by the Pope.

1175 A.D. -- King Henry II sets up his son John as Lord of Ireland. The pope, Alexander III (Adrian died when?) agrees.  John then ascends to the English throne and incorporates the title of Lord of Ireland into the English monarchy.  Ireland comes under the authority of the English crown.

And the centuries-old conflict begins. 

Thirteen/WNET New York see : www.thirteen.org.

We came on this ruin without use of guidebook. Take back roads rather than the motorways.  Find the many ruins, old churches, castles. Free to roam. No guardrails usually, just a sign saying to be careful.

See http://limerickdioceseheritage.org/Adare/textAdare.htm

It is easy to find Roman Catholic sites on the later holy places, after their dominance was assured, here is one that begins with 1100 AD, http://earlychristianireland.org/index.html.  Or http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/medieval-monks.htm.

Our interest, however, is with the "reforms" required by the Romans when they subjugated the existing Christians in Ireland.  Celtic Ireland is also easy to find, see http://www.wesleyjohnston.com/users/ireland/past/pre_norman_history/iron_age.html.

Go to http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac70 There find accounts of the charisma of early founders of the monasteries, most now remembered as saints.  Is it so that the Great Saints, those beyond mere founding of monastic orders but in hearts of the faithful, those predating 700 in Ireland.  Those great saints predate the Roman reform programs, 
  • St. Finnian in Meath and his monastery, Clonard. 
  •  St. Ciaran who founded Clonmacnois, on the Shannon River,
  • St. Brendan,  founding Clonfort (Galway).  And
  • St. Columba, Columcille, who then went to Scotland, in 563, to Iona. Lindisfarne was an offshoot, off Northumberland. And
  • St. Patrick.
The greatest saints predate the Roman Catholic imposition.  Is that so?  And the greatest illumination of manuscripts similarly predating the institutional monastic movements, the Book of Kells in 800; the Lindisfarne Gospels in 700, the the Book of Durrow in 650.

Illuminated manuscripts: 7th - 11th century AD

Irish monks of the 7th and 8th century create illuminated manuscripts which are among the greatest treasures of Celtic and early Christian art.

Read more: http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac70#ixzz1XUAZn4m3

Human interest in graveyards:  It is reflected in all the words used to find them.  See hundreds of words/synonyms for a graveyard, including Poe's 100-  at http://www.houseofusher.net/graveyar.html.

Saturday, February 09, 2013

HISTORY. From Book of Kells, to Synod of Kells: The Romanization of the Irish Church

The Book of Kells
The Great Gospel of Columcille -- The Dove of the Church

Irish History Timeline focusing pre-1150 ACE
(Before the Norman Invasion)

Leading to discussion of post 1150 - What the Normans and Other Wrought
How was the imagination, the verve and humor of the early Irish Celtic Church,
 drummed out
 by rigid rules, power-seeking, and institutional machinations of Rome's Branch.

Follow a chronology here.
 Did Roman branch religious feudalism, with its militarism and stratification, steamroll Ireland?
At what cost to the original concepts of Christitanity.

Kells.  Kells has lent its name to the masterpiece from the monastic, medieval era, the Book of Kells.  It also is the site of a later Synod of Kells, which transformed the Irish church into a Rome clone. The Book of Kells, book by Bernard Meehan, see below, traces the traditions of Columcille, born born 521 or 522 into the aristocratic O'Neills, at Tir Connail, near current Donegal. And to the town of Kells.
  • The Book of Kells itself was kept at the town of Kells, in Meath, some 40 miles from Dublin, and is now at the Long Room of Trinity College, Dublin.  The decorated pages, the illuminations, colour, "exuberance and wit," of the work, see its story at this work, The Book of Kells, by Bernard Meehan, who heads the research collections and is keeper of manuscripts at Trinity College, reviewed at Financial Times, Nov.24-25 2012.  The 11th Century Annals of Ulster is said, in the article, to call it primh-mind iarthair domain, "the most precious object of the western world". 
  •  It could have been composed, at the outset at least, by monks following St. Columba, or Columcille, on Iona, off the isle of Mull, on the western coast of Scotland in 800.  See Financial Times.  The term "codex" is appropriate to distinguish manuscript volumes from the later print.  
  • And, it is not necessarily accurate, despite its charm, see review, with an "erratic text" and scriveners' errors among the four scribes (understandable with working conditions in a stone beehive hut, winds blowing), some humorously and wittily corrected, or not, and with puns.  On what is it written? 180 calfskins, showing the community's wealth.  Pages remaining: 680. How fast did the scribes write? 180 words per hour. See Review.  
  • Any interaction with Rome at the time? Yes. Disagreements on dating Easter, leading to enmity between the Irish monks and St. Peter, who founded the Roman branch. See little images of Peter as a hare, thus timid. Leporine digs, says Meehan. More puns: church was founded on a pun, says James Joyce -- rock Peter. See also http://www.godwardweb.org/builtonapun.html

So what happened after the brilliance of the Book of Kells, that so harnessed creativity that is there any other manuscript to surpass it?  What evolved in the religious realm -- so that the brilliance of a Kells would be prevented thereafter. 
1.  From a time of autonomy and respect for difference among Christians, Ireland was overcome by militant and highly organized Roman Orders.  Trace from European roots how the Irish were subjected to compulsory conversion.  Who really won?  The newcomers came by invitation of an already converted Abbot who sought a new abbey to enforce a strict rule.

Benedictines; to Cistercians:  Now are the Cistercian Order of the Strict Observance, or Cistercian Order of the Common Observance, or Trappists.  Start, however, far earlier, to see how the Irish really had no chance.


Follow the progression

Pre-Christian, pre-History:  see http://irelandroadways.blogspot.com/2011/10/ireland-celtic-history-manageable.html

489 or so:  Patrick born, in Dumbarton, Scotland, enslaved, ultimately becomes St. Patrick converting Ireland. http://www.christianitytoday.com/ch/news/2004/stpatricks.html
529 CE -- Saint Benedict established the Benedictine Order on the continent, monasteries and monks (were nuns included in the early years?) with its long periods of prayer and work in the fields, and their black robes, see http://www.catholicculture.org/culture/library/view.cfm?recnum=4425.  The Rule, laid out by Benedict at Monte Cassino in Italy,  by which the Benedictine monasteries and monks were governed, and which survived medieval Europe's violence and changes, required three oaths:  "obedience, stability, and conversion in the way of life."  See http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/benedictine-rule.htm .  The Rule afforded much latitude, autonomy. The way of life was austere:  no property ownership, stay within the monastery bounds unless special permission, black robes (the Black Monks), early to bed, and various enforcement mechanisms,  not even letters from home. It was like a corporation with a life-Abbot.

But Benedictines, in the view of some, relaxed too much the Rule. Note:  no chastity.  Many monasteries were "double monasteries", both genders. Soon, other orders, such as at Citeaux with its vows of austerity and silence, branched into the more rigid structure, ultimately becoming, through Bernard of Fontaines, another order the Cistercians, or white monks becuase of their black robes but with white tunics, see below at 1112.

It was a time also of large numbers of double-monasteries in England and mainland Europe,  see http://www.osb.org/gen/benedictines.html, headed by Abbesses, and broad acceptance of women religious in ministerial roles up to the 1000 and 1100 year marks, generally.
  • Digression: Women in ministerial, ecclestical power positions. After that, Gregorian reforms initiated strong limitations and consolidation of power in the male religious. See Katie Ann-Marie Bugyis, of the Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame, paper entitled Sacerdotes Christi, Women Confessors in High Medieval England. Click and follow at Abstract doc .
  • Fast forward: The Benedictines themselves were marginalized in the 1100's, see http://www.osb.org/gen/benedictines.html, as Dominicans, Franciscans and Cistercians -- with their misogyny, drive to take over areas where women were indeed doing well and financially prospering, and the male-favoring, and celibacy, stricter rules, took over.
563.  Meanwhile, in 563, the Celtic-Irish Columcille-Columba set up a monastery on Iona to better convert the Scots Picts.  The community then fostered Lindisfarne, in Northumberland, set up by in 563 by another monk from Iona, Aidan.  These were not affiliated at all with the Roman movements.

795:  Violence.  Vikings invaded Iona. An era of further raids, and then subsequent settlements ensued. In 802, Vikings burned Iona. In 806, 86 inhabitants were killed, see Financial Times review.  So, the community of monks moved to Kells, where there was a hill-fort connected to royalty, for refuge. This was a small group, if an illustration in the Book of Kells is followed. There are angels holding some reeds.

And the Vikings attacked and raided and settled, year after year, century after century.   See http://www.yourirish.com/history/medieval/vikings/ The impact was devastating on the Celtic church, and its lack of central authority and organization.

1000 CE or so in Ireland:  Pastoral communities characterized old Ireland. The Irish family structure was a grouping of families called the Tuath.  The  leader lived in a home that was fortified, called a rath, or dun, like a little fort.  There would be a Brehon, or lawyer also part of that group; also a healer-physician, and a singer or minstrel, and craft persons or workers.  The subject, poor, lived in huts made of daub and wattle, or clay on reed framework, or mixed with sticks, and formed, a technique also part of the American experience, see http://www.wattleanddaub.com/ And modern poetry:  W.B.Yeats, I will arise and go now/ and go to Innisfree/ And a small cabin build there/ of clay and wattles made....  See http://poetryoutloud.org/poem/172053

The country in 1000 or so was beginning to emerge from centuries of turmoil, with Viking invasions, raids, and then settlements, and population shifts. A Celtic Christian religious life continued to consist of plain living and emulation of good, even divine, behavior, either in withdrawing into deep contemplation, or joining in loosely bound communities and helping others or engaging in scholarship, and script copying.

Then came a change in mindset for Rome. It had to establish itself independently, not a merely another aspect of Christianity.

1054 - The Great Schism. Roman Christianity broke from the Eastern Orthodox Christians, see http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/the-great-schism.htm/  The newly independent Roman branch needed converts, authority, turf, power on its own.   So, after the early centuries of respect for-individualized interpretation of scriptures Christian, and loose organization geared to communication and ease of travel in Ireland, rather than uniformity; came the Roman version:  Ritual and authoritarian dogma from the continent.  The holy steamroller?

1112:  Bernard, then of Fontaines, a nobleman, arrived at Citeaux in France with a 31 men, a band of other nobles seeking to become postulants, including "many gay young men of his acquaintance,"  see http://www.catholicculture.org/culture/library/view.cfm?recnum=4425. Bernard and Stephen, Abbot of Citeaux, set up many daughter houses, and by 1115, including another foundation, Clairvaux nearby.  Bernard was first Abbot of Clairvaux. The "Charter of Charity" was established to supplant the looser earlier rule.  Abbots of parent-houses were to convene periodically to set up common legislation, enforce, and visit all their foundaitons annually for purposes of supervision. The era of forced conformity had well arrived.

1134:  The rise and dominance of militarism. A student of Bernard became the first Cistercian Pope, Eugenius III.  He directed Bernard to preach a crusade.  Bernard and the Cistercian monks helped set up military orders, Knights Templars, the Spanish Knights of Alcantara, the Wing of Saint Michael,and others set up Orders of military women, see http://www.themedievalchronicle.com/SEPTOCT01/Female%20Knights.html

The church militant was on the march.

Mid 1100's.  The Norman Invasion.   Thomas a Becket, John of Salisbury and Bernard of Clairvaux, persuaded Pope Adrain IV to issue the Bull Laudibitur, authorizing the Norman invasion of Ireland.D

1140 - The Bishop of Down, Malachy, requested of the Cistercians at Clairvaux that a new abbey be constructed to enforce a stricter rule. That came to be Mellifont.  Accordingly, in 1142,  Roman Christians set up the first Cistercian monastery in Ireland, called Mellifont, near Monasterboice, County Louth.  The monastery was the first in Ireland to follow the architectural model used in Europe, see http://www.sacred-destinations.com/ireland/mellifont-abbey.  Mellifont, within a few decades, had become mother-church to some 21 monastic places, and 800 or so monks. And the monks by then were all Irish, as the French had been made unwelcome and left.

In 1152, the Synod of Kells.  This formally reshaped the Irish Christian Church into the Roman model:  Ireland was divided into some 36 dioceses and those in turn into four provinces, as required by Rome. It was easy.  There had been a long period of turmoil with Viking invasions, settlements, population shifts; and news of the militance of the new Orders on the Continent had spread.  Into the breach rode Bureaucracy -- who could fight the new boundaries of authority.  See http://www.oracleireland.com/Ireland/history/his-synod-kells.htm

Irish ecclesiastical history is an evolution from the plain, close to original ways of life and teaching; to an institution. The powers of compelled conformity broke the backs of autonomous, deeply meditative and individualistic monastics and other clerics. Enter Rome. See the timeline at Ireland Road Ways, Limerick and Adare, Ruins and Headstones in Golf Courses, an Ecclesiastical History

And, on the continent, the Order of Citeaux became prominent not as a new order, but a stricter Benedictine, see http://www.catholicculture.org/culture/library/view.cfm?recnum=4425  By the 13th Century, however, even Citeaux and the Cistercians were fading, along with other feudal-type organizations.

See details at 

1153 - Dermott MacMurrough invaded land and ran off with a lady, time passed with battles to and fro, MacMurrough was expelled for bad behavior by the High King, MacMurrough went to the King of England, Henry II, for support in getting back his lands (who cared by that time about the lady, who had already been returned).  Henry demurred, and suggested MacMurrough try to recruit noble efforts on his own. He did. He lined up barons and Strongbow.  In exchange for promising his daughter to Richard FitzGilbert de Clare (Strongbow) in marriage, Strongbow agreed to support MacMurrough. Time passes, alliances go here and there, machinations.

1170 - Strongbow invaded with many ships and Anglo-French Normans. See http://www.wesleyjohnston.com/users/ireland/past/history/norman_invasion.html

1249 AD  Bonds between Irish and Scots tribes had remained strong, with English incursions into both territories. But the last traditional inauguration of a King of the Scots took place, for Alexander III, in 1249 AD.   He was led to the sacred Stone of Scone, received homage of the people, and heard his pedigree recited in Gaelic, says Cousin Violet.

1500's - ultimately, the dissolution of the monasteries under Henry VIII of England, for financial and religious reasons, and were the religious reasons really political, for another day, see http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/dissolution_monasteries.htm

1603  AD. Scotland loses its independence.  James IV of Scotland became James I of England, after the death of Elizabeth I.

England ruled it all.
So:  Ireland.  The creativity and love of the loosely-organized early Church was steamrolled.  And, it has not stopped. The mindset of the church militant, the one way of thought and belief, the forced conversion, plagues us yet.

HISTORY. Saga. Normans, Strongbow, and Norse Migrations.

Pick a Place.
Ireland.  Looking for Old Norse
Viking Invasions 700's on
Norman Invasion.
A.  The Norse (Vikings)

Vikings raided, invaded and captured Irish for slaves; and raided monasteries. Note that this was not a first occurrence of attacks by somebody against the monasteries: many of the early Christian monasteries also raided each other, and Irish people themselves also raided the monasteries.  Perhaps the loals did not have the same battleax-gusto, but there were raids, deaths, treasure to be had.  See http://www.irelandseye.com/irish/people/settlers/vikings2.shtm.
There were also tradesmen Vikings, agriculture Vikings,  town folk. Many Vikings came as settlers and stayed. Early Ireland was a place of contrasts, and even among clerics, self-interest.  Here is a view of life:  http://english.glendale.cc.ca.us/christ.html
The Viking stories in Iceland offer a picture of a community with its own laws, allegiances, systems.  Not "barbaric" the sense of lawless.
B.  Tracking the Norse. Summary at FN 1
1.  We are accustomed to thinking of the Norse as Vikings from Norway or Iceland, or Denmark. Norse generally means North.
The Norwegian-Icelandic Norse headed for Scotland (including the Orkneys and the Hebrides) and Ireland (among far-ranging other parts of the world).  Ireland was as a target for the Viking-Norse - Ireland first as source of booty, then a settlement destination for the Norse.
Meanwhile, other waves of Norse aimed for the heart of France, up the Seine and any waterway that could be found. They made so much trouble that Paris bought them off so that they would continue up to Burgundy instead; and finally they all bought off the Vikings from their dreadful raids by giving them Normandy - land of the Northmen.  Normans.
So the Normans were named from the who raided France and were bought off by giving them Normandy, France. They are the ones who invaded the British Isles. And then, from there, Ireland.
Danes, another group of Norse, headed for England more likely.  Swedish Vikings tended to raid and invade and settle more south and East - into Northeast Europe, and Russia.
So:  relationships between groups include those stemming from raids, invasion, exploitation, enslavement in and this applies to Ireland's interaction with the Norse.  Where a stand-off results, with neither fully conquering the other, or fending them off,  see a cultural tolerance arise.  Settlers settle and contribute to the community, the community grudgingly accepts, many cross-pollinate eventually, there is intermarriage.
The Norse settling in Ireland as well as the rest of the British Isles, became integral parts now of that entire heritage.
FN 1.  Summary.  Timelines in history:
Try "The Timechart History of The World: 6000 Years of World History Unfolded," Third Millennium Press 2004.  Scandinavia and Britannia start about 450AD.
1. Norse invasions.
The Norse conquered - obtained Normandy, France, in 906; and the Norse conquered England a century later, in 1066.
In the 10th Century, after some back and forth as to Dublin, these towns were Norse:  Dublin, Wexford, Wicklow, Arklow, Waterford, Cork, Limerick. Lands were not necessarily firmly under Viking rule, however, as Irish kingdoms continued to resist, and in some areas, the relationship became one of mutual tolerance, see The Viking World at
Then another branch of Northmen, not the old Vikings in raiding longboats, but by then the "Normans," stemming from Normandy, and then from England as the Anglo-Normans, invaded Ireland in 1170.
Meet Richard fitz Gilbert de Clare, known as "Strongbow" (this name was also his father's in his time).  - from Waterford to Dublin and beyond, see Norman roots at France Road Ways, Normandy, Normans; and the Strongbow and Norman invasion at http://www.castlewales.com/is_clare.html/.
There are long histories of castles, defenders, defeats, victors rebuilding, but the tall square Norman keep, strong and a refuge, see
2. King Henry of England.
Henry had rejected Strongbow's claims to certain lands, for reasons not entirely clear; but then the King became concerned at the successes of Strongbow and the Anglo-Normans in garnering support.  Henry had to reassert control,  and opportunities arose. 
Dermot of Ireland had come to Henry II for help in regaining his Leinster lands and throne, and Henry gave Dermot a writing declaring that all who supported Henry were released, if they chose, to support Dermot.  And many did, including Strongbow who saw a chance to regain his former glory another way, see http://www.castlewales.com/strngbow.html. 
3.  The tale behind Dermot's plight:
There was a scandalous event among kings in Ireland, giving rise to rivalries and retributions; and King Henry was open to helping the one who lost his lands (the one who had the affair was duly punished).  See Lough Gill entry here, http://irelandroadways.blogspot.com/2006/06/yeats-country-sligo-and-gort-lough.html where the affair apparently was had.  And follow-ups as to history at the Adare section here, showing the division between Christianity before 1100 or so, and after, with the imposition of Gregorian Reforms, see http://irelandroadways.blogspot.com/2006/05/ruins-and-headstones-in-golf-courses.html
And the Pope had the key: 
If the Pope gave permission for invasion, whether or not he had authority to do so, and for ecclesiastical ends (this being the era of Gregorian Reforms 1100 and on), and if the King pays handsomely for it, then the Pope wins by gaining clerical control over an unruly Christian non-Roman island; and the King Henry wins by getting his people in Ireland. 
Enter Strongbow and the Welsh lords invading in earnest,  paying the  Pope, the King in Ireland who lost his lands (Dermot) got them back, wed his daughter to Strongbow as promised, and maneuvered the throne to Strongbow upon Dermot's death, as promised, and the Pope got an ongoing payment of so much per head.  Nice. See http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/geraldwales1.asp The Norman strain apparently was feisty, requiring such controls - the King had to be Somebody.
A trip to Ireland - see the number of Norman towers along the coasts, inland, even Yeats' home  at Gort is a Norman tower house. Return and then find out the time sequence, the stresses, the conflicts.  So some surnames of Norse derivation may not have arrived with Vikings going a-Viking, or settling thereafter, but could have come from another direction: with William the Conqueror in Normandy invading England, and the Normans then in time invading Ireland with Strongbow and others,  Many Normans also settled in Wales.
This is like a paperless filing cabinet, putting in bits that we may want to follow up later.

Thursday, February 07, 2013

HISTORY. Tralee, Queen Scotia and Slieve Mish, Scota. Mountain Grave. An Irish Big Dig

for Scota.
Queen Scotia
 The Big Web Dig for Irish Pre-History Tribal Origins

Scota, Scotia, as ancestor of the Milesians, see http://homepage.eircom.net/~kthomas/history/History3.htm
This is our Web Dig, to find the origins and attributes of Queen Scotia, Scota, Sgota. There is a grave with that identification-indications of name, as she was buried in antiquity and with Egyptian hieroglyphs, they say,  as befits the Pharaoh's daughter that she (some say) was. 

This grave of Scota is near Tralee, at the Slieve Mish Mountains, the range in the central area at the beginning of the Dingle Peninsula, western Ireland. Our interest then moves to other sources supporting the idea of this lady and her people peopling Ireland, at Plain Meaning, Origin Stories

Scholars and regular folk are interested.  See this large site, and track the Milesian connection alleged, http://homepage.eircom.net/~kthomas/history.htm, a site also for vetting Scota tales. Scota, Scotia.
1. Folk-source summary.  For a quick look at a folk-literature summary of the Scots connection, and information at those sites, see Caledonia, Queen Scotia, and Scotland.  Queen Scotia's husband had been killed while fighting Ireland's famed Tuatha de Danaan; and Scotia, a warrior herself, led the troops against the Tuatha-de herself, with her sons, and prevailed.  See her as a figurehead on a 19th Century Scots brig that was shipwrecked off Cornwall, The Caledonia. No wild woman, that. See www.panoramio.com.
We want to know Scota's origins, her place in prehistory.
  •  She and her husband and their group fought (both were warriors) the old Tuatha de Danaan, here the Pantheon site, of prehistory. 
    • Was there a connection between their heritage, and /or the mysterious Tuath-de, that tie into migrations from the ancient Middle East. Haplogroups:  genetic evidence, for those interested in getting very concrete, if they have the expertise to decipher, see http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origins_haplogroups_europe.shtml
    •  As an individual Queen:  We want to know her accomplishments. There are numerous tales, with variations, and we track some of those. What commonalities.
      • Was she merely a King's wife, in the same kind of patriarchal system that smothers us, and the mother of six sons who went on to rule Ireland; who was an accomplished horsewoman who died trying to leap a stream-bank while pregnant on her horse and falling off. And so she died. See that version at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotia%27s_Grave/
  • If that is all there is, why do we find references to her and her Milesian people, that tie her people from ancient  Palestine and the Old Testament (yes!) and a tribe of Hebrews (not "Jews" at that time) who migrated through Egypt (perhaps) to Spain (Iberia - Eber- Hebrew) and from there to Ireland, Hibernia. The "Scotti" of Ireland (roots of Scotia?) went to Scotland, gave it their name, and the groups went back and forth for millennia.
  • Sources for ancient migration evidence or belief include: "The histories of England, Wales, and Scotland, even Ireland also, were intertwined in ancient times such that the whole British Isles, due to the proximity of the islands, then shared a common British history, with common elements in the population of the islands, until the time of the Roman conquest of a large part of Britain ...." See the account at The British Chronicles Book 1, by David Hughes, 2007 / at page 43.  As to Picts: "  ...Credne is remembered in Irish tradition as the leader of the migration of the majority of the Irish Picts from Ireland to Scotland (emphasis added) during the Gaelic Conquest of Ireland, whence their name." See page 46. See portions at the google book there.
    • So, were Picts in Ireland first (having come from the Orkneys and Hebrides or some such earlier) and did they fight Scota's group as Scota & Co. invaded; and then the pressured Picts headed (some) to Scotland; and then so did the Scotti or Scotii; and who was the Tuatha de Danaan that we understand that Scotia and group fought. The Picts?
  • What support is there for a migration route from the eastern Mediterranean to Ireland through Spain, including "evidence" like place names, and were they one of the Hebrew tribes; or counted instead (or in addition) from descendants of (here goes) Noah.  
    • This gets to be a rabbit hole. 
    • A medieval source, Nennius 8th Century (look up Medieval Sourcebook), ties in groups from Spain to Ireland, and matches the moving groups with Old Testament timing - see FN 1 (open source).
2,  For those of us new to this, it is confusing. Who? Which? Either?

 If the stories are irreconcilable, fine. Look at place names for history.

Making sense of markers is ongoing - Look at geography,  The Isle of Man, between the Irish Sea and Solway Firth, Scotland, and north England, would be a natural stop-off for people going back and forth from Europe, and even arriving.  There is a small wiry dark group there, with legends about them having Spanish origins, see http://www.isle-of-man.com/manxnotebook/fulltext/pn1925/rn.htm/ Find there Spanish origins, and even Middle Eastern before that.
  • Of course, dating of legends is difficult. Was this reference merely the Spanish Armada shipwrecking in 1588? Scroll down to Kione Spainey, or Spanish Head - Spain was once visible from this spot, so it says.
If nothing is determinable beyond reasonable doubt, it is interesting, and we lay out what we have found here. We did find a discussion page with long dissertations on the tribes at http://www.flickr.com/photos/celtico/2924466222/ and a map of Irish Celtic tribes.
  •  Is Celtic different from the differing migrations we read about? Is Scotia considered Celtic?  How could that be?  
  • That site also finds, at a post by a mysteryinternetchatsource (like us) "mikescottnz",  two Scotias, each with a different history-connection to Ireland. 
    • We read and tried to make sense of it, and came up with four Scotas, each of whom is fine and to be remembered:  
    • Hello? Mike Scott in New Zealand, is that you?  What did we get wrong?
3.  The various Scotas so far.
  • Scota One:  Scythian prince Fenius Farsaid, is her father-in-law. In a "pseudo-Biblical" account, a "Christianized myth" perhaps with Irish monastic glosses (Nennius?) she is an Egyptian princess, daughter of Nectanebus (there was Nectanebus I and Nectanebus II), married Mil. Mil would be the son of Fenius Farsaid.  Their son is Goidal Glas and he devises the Irish language from the 72 that arose "from the dispersal of the nations"(?) Goidal Glas' descendants are the Gaels and they wander for centuries (so clearly Scota One never got to Ireland to be buried) and finally settle in Iberia. Further descendant Breogan founds city Brigantia and builds tower. This may be at Coruna, NW Galicia. their sons
  • Scota Two:  From early Irish chronicle, the Lebor Gabala (Book of Invasions, Book of Conqests). Scota is an Egytian princess, daughter of Cingris (name only in legend). Princess Scota. She married Niul, a son of Fenius Farsaid who was a Babylonian who traveled to Scythia after the Tower of Babel collapsed (more Christian glosses?).Niul was a "linguistic scholar" and the Pharaoh invited him and gave him Scota to marry. They had the son, Goidal Glas, who did the Irish language. The Israelites leave Egypt, and so must Goidal.  His descendants settle in Iberia, where Mil Espaine was born. Two of his sons, Eber Finn and Eremon settle Ireland.
  • And Scota Three? The Story of the Irish Race, by Seumas McManus:  Scota married Niul, but Niul is the grandson of Goidal Glas. 
  • In the alternative, do we have Scota Four?  Scota is the Egyptian princess who married Miled or Miletius. Queen Scota. He died, she went to Ireland with her 8 sons and their fams, big storm and many died, and Scota died fighting the Tuatha de Denaan. And so to Glenn Scoithinn, Vale of the Little Flower, and Scotia, perhaps.
4. For earlier origins back to the Middle East, and then in Spain, see Zaragoza: Zahar of the Red Hand. Look for the Scythians, language links to the Phoenician, Hebrew borrowing from the Phoenician word forms, and so on.

And Zahar himself. This part is not in the usual Chronicles, apparently, and that is understandable because in time it was not desirable to have a Hebrew background, is that so?

5.  A Hebrew Speculative Connection, to be Woven In, Perhaps.  Eighth Century Chronicler Nennius and the Rest:  Prepare to Amend

Zahar was the grandson of Jacob, famed in Genesis by being identified as the firstborn of twins, thus entitled to the birthright, and the midwife tied a red cord around his wrist to identify him; but then he pulled his arm back in (precocious, but unwise for the inheritance) and his brother was fully born first, and got it all. See Genesis.  Zahar, left out, left. His own Odyssey.

Is Zahar's line a lost tribe of Israel, and is this their story.  Great fun.

5.1  Origins as Gaelic or Scythian.  Naming carries clues. 

The traditional name for the grave area, a diminutive "Little Flower" is shown by the name of the area of the alleged gravesite, near Tralee, at Glen Scoithin (the Flower part) or Foley's Glen.  
  • To some, the Scoithin argues for her Gaelic origins, Scoithin as a synonym for traditional women's Gaelic names, Flora or Rosa.  To others, the Scoithin ties with the Scythian woman, as she is also known. Wikipedia at Scotia's Grave adds that Scoithin information, that we had not had before.
  • However, there are far more possibilities, even though those do not help the Gaelic pride line, and do show many even more links to Scythian. See page 46 at ://books.google.com/books?id=QnDtohOe8-QC&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+British+Chronicles&source=bl&ots=NSFqVByjJH&sig=LLTKIPeMlIiQUfRPO5OfTanqDCw&hl=en&ei=4r-aS4-mLsP48AaHluSWDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CA8Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=&f=false
Identity and lineage.

5.2  The Red Hand took hold in Ireland in various ways, and not necessarily directly connected to Zahar.

There is also the Red Hand of Ulster, that we looked at in American politics -- the use of the red hand in political advertising, to rally political supporters.  See Red Hand, "Family", JPMorgan Chase, Code.  Scroll down to the Ulster section.  A modern exploitation of the red hand, a diminution of a core symbol for Ireland, with its pros and cons, uses in violence. A trivializing of The Red Hand to use it in America.

Ui Niall was a Milesian, as was Scotia.  If the Milesians were Hebrew by extraction, then the red hand has a double meaning - Ulster and the Old Testament.  And if it became unfashionable as centuries passed, to be known as Hebrews, then the red hand idea could move easily from Story 1, about the birth of Zahar and his descendants wandering; to Story 2, update when Ui Niall hacks his off and hurls it to the beach in time to claim the Ulster coast. But if Ui Niall himself is a descendant of the wandering tribe, we are back at square one, and happily so.


FN 1  Medieval Sourcebook, Nennis -Historia Brittonum, 8th Century, at :// www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/nennius-full.html/.  Note the main introduction, that this early source relies on oral and other traditions. This is not entirely to be discounted, however, see the modern The British Chronicles, Heritage Books, by David Hughes (2007) (incorporation of this and similar source material but with discussion and choices)

Meet Nennius and his account:
11. AEneas reigned over the Latins three years; Ascanius thirty-three years; after whom Silvius reigned twelve yeaars, and Posthumus thirty-nine years: the latter, from whom the kings of Alba are called Silvan, was brother to Brutus, who governed Britain at the time Eli the high-priest judged Israel, and when the Ark of the covenant was taken by a foreign people. But Posthumus his brother reigned among the Latins.
12. After an interval of not less than eight hundred years, came the Picts, and occupied the Orkney Islands: whence they laid waste many regions, and seized those on the left hand side of Britain, where they still remain, keeping possession of a third part of Britain to this day.
13. Long after this, the Scots arrived in Ireland from Spain (emphasis added) The first that came was Partholomus, with a thousand men and women, these increased to four thousand; but a mortality coming suddenly upon them, they all perished in one week. The second was Nimech, the son of …..who, according to report, after having his ships shattered, arrived at a port in Ireland, and continuing there several years, returned at length with his followers to Spain. After these came three sons of a Spanish soldier with thirty ships, each of which contained thirty wives; and having remained there during the space of a year, there appeared to them, in the middle of the sea, a tower of glass, the summit of which seemed covered with men, to whom they often spoke, but received no answer. At length they determined to besiege the tower; and after a year's preparation, advanced towards it, with the whole number of their ships, and all the women, one ship only excepted, which had been wrecked, and in which were thirty men, and as many women; but when all had disembarked on the shore which surrounded the tower, the sea opened and swallowed them up. Ireland, however, was peopled, to the present period, from the family remaining in the vessel which was wrecked. Afterwards, others came from Spain, and possessed themselves of various parts of Britain.
 Egyptian Princess become Queen. Milesian King.  A group arriving in Spain, and the Queen leading the band after the death of the king from there to Ireland?

Not out of the question after all. Ancient Carthage and ancient Egypt were great empires before Rome, and took over Spain as well as the Mediterranean coastal areas, and tips of other places.  Travel was not unusual, and would have been facilitated by the conquests. From Spain to Ireland:  short sail. See legends from the time of the Flood, through the Old Testament, at After the Flood:  Irish Biblical Roots and Egypt.

Wednesday, January 09, 2013

Cork, Skibbereen: Famine, depopulation, immigration

1840's Irish Famine. 
Death by Greed. A kind of genocide for its day.

An avoidable tragedy;  food was there;  just shipped out for profit and to get rid of rabble

By way of update, the myth that the deaths were caused by the potato blight, the "gorta mor" or great hunger resulting, continues.  See Archeology Magazine, American Institute of Archeology, Jan-Feb 2013 at http://www.archaeology.org/issues/.  At the World Roundup Section at page 22, not delineated at the issue site, is reference to Ireland on the map.  The deaths of some 1.5 million people is attributed to the Phytophthora Infestans microorganism causing potato blight.   An exhibit at Quinnipiac University, Hamden CT, shows art related to the era -- to be visited to see what causation they trace to the real cause of death.  Failure to distribute food, not unavailability of food.

But there was plenty of other food in Ireland, all owned by distant landowners, or local landowners keeping their distance from the locals, and profit-driven. 

See http://rootsweb.com/%7Eirlkik/ihm/ire1841.htm. The BBC gives information on whether the famine in Ireland was preventable - food available, but deflected by the powers to England or other places, not to the locals.  See also http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victorians/famine_07.shtml.

Skibbereen, a town in the southeast corner of Ireland, was decimated.  This is Skibbereen. It was a focal point of the 1840's famine years, and built an extensive memorial. See http://www.skibbheritage.com/famine.htm. A personalized view of the famine is at http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/irishfamine. This site offers first-hand accounts, by people at the time.

Skibbereen, Famine Cemetery, County Cork, Ireland

It is hard to know whether a particular ruin is related to the famine. Perhaps this farm was just abandoned with changing property lines. But empty homes and farms haunt fields and towns everywhere.

Abandoned farmstead, ruin, Ireland