Tuesday, September 20, 2011

Donegal. Heritage. Place Names. Meanings. Matthew McConaghy 1780 on. Are They Still There.

Places: Descendants of Matthew McConaghy 1780 ff 
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Donegal Place Names
  Part I of family heritage Sites.
How can they enrich anyone's history.
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A Bucket List for Later Visits *
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Donegal was never quite colonized under the Plantation era: The country underwent invasions by migratory early peoples,  Find a useful chronology of Norse, Normans, English, at http://www.historyfiles.co.uk/KingListsBritain/GaelsHighKings.htm.  For overall history, see David Hughes' British Chronicles.  Scroll down the contents here to get to Ireland, at http://books.google.com/books/about/The_British_Chronicles.html?id=ZABSepHO1FMC

Milestones of history. Scots "Risings" occurred in 1688, 1715 and 1745 spurred much immigration to Ireland from Scotland unrelated to the Plantation. These took place in Scotland after this McConaghy branch began living in the North of Ireland. Our people apparently did not come to Ireland because of the "Risings".   It was earlier, at the Plantation? From there on, it remained business as usual to move back and forth, family ties, Scots universities.
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I.  A Sense of Place.  Donegal; for one branch - McConaghy

[Tyrone, for the Norman-British Hilliard-Brien]
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Events in Donegal, Londonderry, the rest of Ulster, have deep roots, even in prehistory with the first Ui Neill, and ultimately the flight of Hugh O'Neill as part of the 1607 Flight of the Earls.  His lands were redistributed to the English and other settlers. We are trying to find if our people were part of the Plantation, or there on their own. 
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At least the history files site affirms that the Scotti or Scoti were indeed Irish, although arrived early from elsewhere (Milesian? Even Scythian??). As raiders pushed into Ulster, the northeast, the Scoti themselves pushed into and raided and settled in Scotland.  Surnames are on both sides of the Irish Sea. In Scotland we find our Maconochie clan, Meadowbank, County Edinburgy, originally Campbell of Inverawe, County Argyll, according toys John Burke's Encyclopedia of Heraldry or General Army of England, Scotland and Ireland. Some in the family find Maconochie through Robertson.  Why care?  The interest is a handle on history. Any topic that presents is a good organizing and self-teaching tool. For the Maconochie of Argyll, descendants of Duncan, see http://scotlandroadways.blogspot.com/2009/10/surname-roots-exodus-campbell-mcconaghy.html
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2.  "Plantation" Donegal.
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There were English in Donegal, but the area never quite became a Plantation.  See http://www.ulsterancestry.com/newsletter-content.php?id=26.   Their role was to give some protection to other settlers, but a colony never materialized: 
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"***  Due in part to its wildness and inaccessibility colonists proved reluctant to attempt settlement. In addition, Sir Arthur Chichester described its native population as a "people inclined to blood and trouble". In 1619, Pynnar recorded of estate after estate that nothing was built and that there were no British tenants. [According to] one historian ... : "it was the pluck, skill and tact of hard-bitten, experienced soldiers such as Sir Henry Folliott and Sir Basil Brooke, that held Donegal quiet and so gave protection to the infant colony".
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Tracking family in Donegal, then is uncertain, as to loyalties of any generation at any time.  There is a difference between claiming Scots and English heritage, since the original "Scots" were Irish back in the day; and being part of  a Plantation-extension.  We are sorting it out.
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3.  Geneology and ladies' names.  Matriarchs disparu.
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Patriarchy carries with it discriminations against others that, if pressed against men, would not be tolerated, and never had to. Men's names carry on with the property inheritance ramifications as that evolved; women disappear with their birthnames. And she did all that work bringing into the world five surviving sons for husband Matthew to take credit for.
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For example, one Matilda Gray, Matriarch:  wife of Matthew McConaghy who was born about 1780 and owned property known as Greenhills in Raphoe - Convoy, Donegal. See http://irelandroadways.blogspot.com/2011/09/donegal-raphoe-bucket-list-greenhills.html
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  • Matilda. No birthdate, no death date. She is forgotten. Was it her property, that Greenhills, that passed to Matthew with the marriage? No idea. Matthew lives on because his surname survives the system, and he had five sons carrying it on: David, Robert, Joseph (from whom we spring), John, Alexander, his name attaches easily.  The name "Matilda" does recur, however, see St. Johnstone.
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Matthew is supposed to be buried at Raphoe Churchyard, but no stone is now to be found, although it is noted in son David's will.
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II.  Place Names. What can we learn from the Places?
  • Place names are listed with forbears in much family tree research.  The Gaelic is interesting because "Gael" or "Gal" means "foreigner" or stranager.  Donegal would be fort of the foreigners.  The word comes from pre-Gaelic people who referred to the later Celts as foreigners or "Gaels".  See http://www.irelandstory.com/geography/placenames.html. This ties the Gaels in with the Gauls, and is that the same time period as Caesar pushing the Gauls out of Rome's way?
  • What were these places? With schools not teaching history and geography, start with your own family with your own children.
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County Donegal, now the Republic of Ireland, parts earlier included in Ulster  [border area at Strabane and Tyrone find at section III]:

In 1841, Donegal was part of Ulster. Our family stems from Raphoe, See the history of Ireland 1598-1620, the establishment of the Plantation, English, Scots and others sent to populate areas of Ireland's north, after the Flight of the Earls left areas open to new control, at http://www.wesleyjohnston.com/users/ireland/past/history/15981629.html
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Raphoe History: See also the Library Ireland, Donegal site
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A.   Greenhills, Raphoe 
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1.  Matthew McConaghy 1780 or 1785. We see no Celtic or Gaelic in that very English name.  So, green hills.

2.  Settlement history

Was this part of the earlier effort at Plantation, or other settlement? Apparently so. Part of Donegal also was included in Ulster, see Strabane, the Tyrone town that straddles the border, so English or Scots on both sides of the existing county line would be expected.  For the Ulster Plantation itself, see http://www.wesleyjohnston.com/users/ireland/past/history/15981629.html
fair use, and note the cultural impact:
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"*** In 1609 the English mapped out 4,000,000 acres of land and started gaving it out in 1610. Counties Down, Monaghan and Antrim were planted privately. Counties Derry and Armagh were planted with English. Counties Tyrone and Donegal were planted with Scots. Counties Fermanagh and Cavan were planted with both Scots and English.

The vast majority of the settlers were Scottish, as it turned out, and they brought with them a new form of Christianity, Presbyterianism, which was different from both Roman Catholicism and the Church of England, although it is classified as Protestant. They also brought new farming methods and a Puritan lifestyle. This made north-east Ireland culturally very different from the rest of the island.***"
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3.  Land designations
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But see Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ireland Vol 3: p. 112. Raphoe was the name of a County, a Diocesan seat (we understand as to a Presbetery, but was it Episcopal? See also http://www.libraryireland.com/topog/R/Raphoe-Raphoe-Donegal.php,, That the area used to be called "Rathboth" .  Raphoe is a barony, an old Gaelic designation, property area designation, see Rootsweb, and http://www.ballybegvillage.com/land_division.html; and a parish, and a post and market town. See again FN 2 here.
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Greenhills:   Greenhills - that turns out to be a house.  It is "the last the [sic] residence of W. Fenwick, Esq." and one of three "seats" of a diocese -- of the Presbetery, we understand.
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4.  Ecclesiastsical underpinnings

Raphoe as an ecclesiastical site was founded in the 9th Century by a St. Eunan, a/k/a Adamnan, see http://www.bartleby.com/210/9/077.html, and http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01135c.htm; long before the Roman branch of Christianity asserted its supremacy against the Irish Christians in the 11th-12th centuries. He also was a biographer of St. Columba, Columcille. How to find, out of dogma evolved since then, a real Eunan, or is there no difference. 
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  • The evolution of Christianity's focus from early contemplative Irish, free-wheeling, individualized; to the Roman regimentation is seen in architecture as well as dogma. Rome focused on "crucifixion" and "cross."
  • .Older Ireland had, of course, not. Ireland's Christians focused not on dogma and theology but living out The Life. Enter changes to church architecture with the Roman group:   *** "rendering it [the church] perfectly cruciform."  Cruciform is dogma, the new regime.  See  http://www.libraryireland.com/topog/R/Raphoe-Raphoe-Donegal.php
  • Raphoe:  After diminution of the Irish Christian contemplative tradition, there was a Roman-type institutional bishop here in 1203.
  • St. Columba's work earlier was not necessarily to be seen as a monastery, as we think of those institutions; because he was not an institutional Christian.  But apparently he founded some ecclesiastical setting.  Rome shoved all earlier forms of Christian followers away, with its high centralization and conformity. In came Dominicans and Cistercians and centralized bishoprics took over, accountable to Rome, not the indigenous, local population structures.
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5.  McConaghys at Greenhills, Raphoe.  Digging deeper.

Matthew's son, Robert, a farmer of Carrickbrack (carrick means rock in Gaelic, see http://www.irelandstory.com/geography/placenames.com) , Rooskey Upper. He married a Margaret Allen of Greenhills. 
  • What?  Greenhills was supposed to have been Matthew's place, where, with one Matilda Gray, he had the five sons including Robert. Robert at the time was to have held 13 acres at Raphoe, and 30 acres at Kiltole.
  • Our family also ties in to property known as Larkfield, where Rev. John, 1812-1881, another son of Matthew, died 1881 (records) and is buried 1882 (says the stone); Larkfield, Urney, Tyrone; and here we find another Margaret, see Google book, landed gentry of Ireland, Greenhills. Donegal.  These odd sites are here by way of a marker for later. John did not marry a Margaret, he married Elizabeth Cunningham 1813-1898 of Ballyfatton Cottage, Strabane,
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This was the homestead, as we would call it, of the first McConaghy we can document so far in our line -- Matthew born about 1780.  Crests may establish the line.
  • This McConaghy group that for us started at Raphoe - Convoy is not related, as was previously thought, to the Scots McConachie - Robertson group.  The name McConaghy is not that common, but here the crests are different.  The Scots McConachie is "hand with crown".
  • This Matthew McConaghy a McConachie, us, (Matilda! Wife of Matthew! speak up!) has a crest that is different:  comprised of the top half of a Scots male figure, not just hand with crown; and with a plaid over one shoulder, holding sheaf of arrows pointing down.  The motto is, "By these we shine."
  • This Matthew McConaghy group, if the crest reasoning is correct, is kin to the Campbells from Argyll, west coast of Scotland, extending down a southward peninsula and angling toward the north of Ireland.  See Burke's heraldry at http://scotlandroadways.blogspot.com/2009/10/surname-roots-exodus-campbell-mcconaghy.html; and Atholl Highlanders at http://scotlandroadways.blogspot.com/2007/11/atholl-highlanders-blair-castle.html
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B.  Roosky Upper, 28 acres, Raphoe
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James, a son of Matthew, owned 28 acres here in 1858. Brother Robert is also listed there
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C.  Tullydonnell Lower, 72 Acres.

David son of Matthew. Tulach means knoll, http://www.pbenyon1.plus.com/Misc/Etymology.html.
There also is Don - Celtic brown, or Dun fort. Donail Daniel. Tullach Donail, Daniel's Hill.  Count five such names of Townlands (Townland:  see FN 2). One is Tullydonnell Lower in Donegal.

See David McConnaghy, two 'n's for this property and at Ardvarnock Glebe, 40 acres, see 1870 Griffith's Valuation at  http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~donegal/raphoegv.htm

D.  Ardvarnock Glebe, 40 acres.

David son of Matthew http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~donegal/raphoegv.htm
Glebe:  a church "furlong" (measure of an area) or parson's "close", property of the church for the parson's residence, farm. Ard means a high place, Gaelic.  This can be physically or in terms of status, importance.  Ards peninsula, County Down, Some "Ard" words, however, are abbreviations of Atherdee, and Dee is the river.  See Irelandstory site above.
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E. Kiltole,

David, http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~donegal/raphoegv.htm
Kil means a church, Gaelic.  See also Kilkenny, Kildare, this from irelandstory site above.
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F.  Carrickbrack
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Robert son of Matthew
Carrickbrack is near Strabane, that straddles the Donegal Tyrone border, see http://www.i-google-map.com/europe-map/ireland-map/county-donegal-map/carrickbrack-map/
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Carrick, rock.  Irelandstory.com.    Brack:  in breadmaking, a kind that specked with fruit, often soaked overnight, see http://www.sheridanrogers.com.au/2011/03/15/irish-brack/ Carrick brack.  Bread hard like a rock? This site defines brack as the Gaelic for salt, the word now used for bread.  Makes more sense.  Rock salt?http://www.bigoven.com/recipe/32404/barm-brack-traditional-irish-bread
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F.  Margherahee

My mother was Marjorie McConaghy.  What does the name mean?
 Robert son of Matthew owned this property that sounds like it [cannot find this property].

In babynames, Marjorie means Pearl, child of light, jewel, from Gaelic and also French, add Hebrew and Latin for good measure, but how reliable is that.  No derivations given? See http://www.babynology.com/otherorigins-marjorie-f33.html 

Hee is apparently in the Gaelic dictionary from Manx. http://www.onelook.com/?lang=all&w=hee&loc=nophr; and http://www.visitisleofman.com/culture/; but seems to be an archaic form of "he".  Marghera is part of Venice, including port, refinery.

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III.  DONEGAL - TYRONE BORDER
STRABANE
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A.  Ballyfatton Cottage, Urney, Tyrone
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Rev. John, a son of Matthew, married in 1841 the daughter of Robert Torrens of Ballyfatton Cottage, Strabane.  She was Elizabeth Cunningham, born 1813, died 1898.

Bally means "place of" from the Gaelic 'Baile na'. See irelandstory site above.  It does not mean town. Few towns existed went the names attached.

Fatton.  To feed for slaughter, to make fat, see http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/charles-annandale/the-imperial-dictionary-and-encyclopedia-of-knowledge-unabridged-etymological-a-hci/page-133-the-imperial-dictionary-and-encyclopedia-of-knowledge-unabridged-etymological-a-hci.shtml

Ok:  Place where animals were fattened. Now Fatton is a common surname. Owner of the feedlot?
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Rev. John and Elizabeth Cunningham had seven children:  Elizabeth, Sarah, Margaret - married William McCrae, lied at "Grange", Willliam [became surgeon general, India, married Mary Birdwood], Martha who married her cousin, Matthew Allen 1861, John IMS India 184901907, buried at Exmouth, and Robert James MD?
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This also was the home of James Torrens, Urney, father of wife of Robert McClure McConaghy, Glengeen Lodge, Trillick. 
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B.  Glengeen Lodge, Trillick, County Tyrone
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This is a manor house, built as a hunting lodge, and home, since the Flight of the Earls, of the family of William Brien, and father at age 38 of Louise Lucinda Brien.  Flight of the Earls:  Tyrone and Tyrconnell fled; leaving Ulster open and un-owned as far as the English were concerned, and the Plantation resulted.  See http://www.theflightoftheearls.net/; and http://www.irishhistorylinks.net/History_Links/UlsterPlantation.html
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 Louise Lucinda, Louisa Lucinda, Lucinda Louisa.  She was daughter of  William Brien of Glengeen Lodge, Trillick, and Margaret Hilliard, a the daughter of a tradesman and his wife in Trillick.  Margaret, at age 13, was part of the household staff at Glengeen Lodge where Mr. Brien lived and took her.  He acknowledged paternity and apparently supported Margaret and my grandmother, born within the year. Margaret gave birth at 14 to Louise Lucinda, my grandmother. There are repercussions in any family. See Briens there at the 1910 Census, http://www.libraryireland.com/UlsterDirectory1910/Trillick.php
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This doesn't address the 16 McConaghy families from Antrim, see Google book "The Scotch-Irish" (in various places)

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FN 1.

Questions.  Why do we focus on the bloodlines of the male.  Where is the bloodline of the female, Matilda Gray, wife of Matthew McConaghy?  We, for the detective in us, are setting up obscure posts for the lost women in geneologies.  

A.  Children of Matthew McConaghy born 1780.   All surname McConaghy

1. David b. 1805, m.  Ann who died July 8, 1872 (stone); David died Feb 21,1871
  • No descendants
  • TULLYDONNELL LOWER, 72 acres
  • ARDVARNOCK GLEBE, 40 acres
2. Robert _____
  •  Charles b.1845; m. Elizabeth born 1847, in 1872 *
    • Robert b. 1873; married in 1905 ______;
      • Charles
      • Violet
3. Joseph b. 1811; d. Dec 31, 1875  St. Johnston; m. Mary McClure, who died May 6, 1874 (stone, St. Johnston, County Derry.  Joseph:  Glasgow University 1831; Ordained December 12, 1834, St. Johnston
  • Matilda E. b. 1843, d. July 26, 1863 (stone, St. Johnston)
  • James Foster M.D. b. 1845, d. 1887.  University of Glasgow 1887; M.A. 1867; M.D. 1875
  • Robert MClure, Rev.  b.______; m. Sidney Torrens, June 6, 1870 in SION MILLS, TYRONE;  Sidney is daughter of James Torrens of Urney, BALLYFATTON COTTAGE.  Farm.
    • Joseph William Alexander b. May 30, 1871, at Ballyfatton Cottage, m._____, d._____
    • James Torrens b. Nov 18, 1872, at Sion Mills, County Tyrone, m.____, d. _____
    • Robert McClure b. June 9, 1876, in Derry; m. Louise Lucinda Brien b.______ in Trillick, County Tyrone;  Aug.4, 1904 in NY (her father was William Brien of GLENGEEN LODGE, Trillick, Tyrone; her mother was Margaret Hilliard of Trillick). Home of Robert and Louise: New York
      • Next generation omitted here because many still living

4. John b. 1812
  • * Elizabeth b. 1847. m. Charles b 1845 , son of Robert [married her cousin Charles, son of Robert]
5. Alexander b. 1822 0r 1823?, died March 13, 1889 (stone); married?
  • Nil.  No descendants.
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FN 2  Land divisions in Ireland -

 Provinces, Counties, Baronies, Parishes - Dioceses, Townlands, Poor Law Unions

1.  Provinces.  There are four:  Ulster (North); Leinster (East); Connaught (West); Munster (South). These are named from the ancient kingdoms Uladh, Laiaghean, Connaught, Mumha.  There had been a fifth old kingdom, Meath, but that merged with Leinster. Two other old kingdoms, Aileach and Oriel, were integrated with Ulster in the 17th Century.

2.  Counties.  King John in 1210 started the county system
  • King John's basic twelve:  Dublin; Kildare; Meath; Louth; Carlow; Kilkenny; Wexford; Waterford; Cork; Kerry; Limerick; Tipperary.
  • Add King's County and Queen's County in the reign of Queen Mary of England;
  • Add Longford, Clare, Galway, Sligo, May, Roscommon, Leitrim, Armagh, Monaghan, Tyrone, Derry, Condgal, Fermanagh and Cavan in the reign of Elizabeth I. 
  • Antrim and Down have uncertain origins
  • Wicklow was carved out of Dublin County in 1605. 
  • Note that some towns have the same name as the county:  Dublin, Limerick, Cork.  
3.  Baronies -
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These stem from ancient Gaelic land holdings.  There are now some 325 baronies.  In the 19th Century, the English turned these into civil divisions for the purpose of land valuations.
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4.  Parishes -
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These could be ecclesiastical (Dioceses?) or civil or both.  In the 19th Century, the civil parish was used for land valuations.  The civil parish was generally smaller in size than the ecclesiastical  and often had a different name. There are about 2002 civil parishes.
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5.  Townlands -
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Townlands were small rural divisions of the civil parish were called Townlands.  An average size may be some 350 acrea.  In 1901, there were some 60,462 such townland areas.
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6.  Poor Law Unions -
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 In 1838, the Poor Law Relief Act was passesd, dividing the country into Unions or Districts where "local rateable" people were to be responsible financially for the care of paupers there. A Union may be a multiple of Townlands, perhaps with a radius of some 10 miles (estimate). One market town would be designated as the Center, and there the Poor House would be located.  These are frequently still seen, but used for different purposes.
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Source of all this?
An obscure family photocopy,
shaggy, with this at the bottom:
  (1487)W.33798. 5,000. 2-73. F.P.--G21.
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      *
      Our lists of land holdings are larger than we anticipated, so this site is now limited to Donegal. Tyrone land holdings or references will be at a Tyrone post.
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      Non-McConaghy's, those not of the 1780 Raphoe MatthewMConaghy line here, are in FN 1.
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      For any surname researcher: spellings change: McConaghy, McConnaghy, McConaughy, McConaghey, MacConachie and on. For a discussion of the land divisions in Ireland, see FN 2, above

    Monday, September 05, 2011

    Louth. Drogheda. Irish Slavery. Malcolm the Irish Thrall, St. Patrick, The Caribbean

     Irish History -- Slaves
    The Battle of Drogheda, County Louth
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    Irish slaves: 
    In the Caribbean, in Iceland - Malcolm the Irish Thrall, 
    St. Patrick
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    Early named slaves from Ireland include Patrick - as in Saint Patrick.  Irish raiders are credited with snatching him from Wales, the College of Theodosius, Llantwit Major, in the territory of Cernyw,  see http://www.historyfiles.co.uk/KingListsBritain/GaelsHighKings.htm

    And meet Malcolm - as in  Malcolm the Thrall, the Irish slave in pre-Christian Iceland's Burnt Njall Saga.  See
    http://www.northvegr.org/sagas%20annd%20epics/icelandic%20family%20sagas/njals%20saga/018.html

    Enslavement has long been a respected and usual way of asserting supremacy, in a way that helped make ends meet, and disiposed of otherwise rebellious defeated opponents.
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    Slavery in old Great Britain and Europe, Rome, Vikings. Slavers.  Read the stories, many online, and read the letters, the primary documents as available.  Find Irish slaves in the Caribbean.

    A.  Irish Slaves in the Caribbean.  Is Forced Indenture the same?  Were there both?  Could all the "indentured" work their way to freedom?
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    Slavery 1600's to Date, Western Culture - Ireland in particular. Irish Slaves in the Caribbean
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    1.  The Battle of Drogheda, near Dublin.  Siege of Drogheda.  Where did it lead? Cromwell's order.
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    The year is 1648-9.  There had been years of fighting, Irish "Parliamentarians" against the Royalists, and now, Cromwell.  Resistance to the English was fierce, resulting in Irish massacres of soldiers, clergy; and the resulting response worse.  See  http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/military/ireland-1649-drogheda.htm English response:  enslave.  Between 1648 and 1655, some 12,000 political prisoners from Ireland (the Irish were ultimately brutally suppressed at the Battle of  Drogheda in 1648-9) were forced into "indenture" in Barbados, for example. Forced indentures:  what were the terms, when was the release, if ever? See Irish slavery at  http://www.raceandhistory.com/cgi-bin/forum/webbbs_config.pl/noframes/read/1638
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    The traditional stories of Scots slaves in the Caribbean is familiar.  Less familiar to non-Irish (but a favored topic for many Irish, see http://www.trisranch.com/id82.html) is Irish slavery.  It is also documented, is slavery - including the involuntary indenture - of the Irish. There were extensive abductions - forced transit to the Caribbean.
    Irish came to Jamaica one way or another, some voluntary, in the 1600's, see Jamaica Gleaner, at http://jamaica-gleaner.com/pages/history/story0058.htm.  Each century seemed to bring more impetus to subjugate the Irish, the initial time period being the 1100's;  and from that original Anglo-Norman invasion, to its repercussions: brutal perpetuation of English control of Ireland.

    2.  Why the vehemence, the absolute refusal of the Irish to accept subjucation in their land, fight so strongly against overwhelming odds, as at Drogheda with Cromwell.
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    Most accounts of the Irish subjugation should go back farther then they do:  What if the Pope recognized he had no jurisdiction over Ireland. What if Henry II had not bought off Pope Adrian in order to get the  Laudabiliter -  he needed written permission to invade, under the pretext of doing it for the church and spread its influence as the sole spokes-institution for Christianity?  When Ireland was already Christian - since the earliest Centuries; and the original Anglo-Norman invasion stemmed from affairs of the heart.  The pope was never told? Who told what? Documents trustworthy? Pretext?  See the papal bull in its entirety at http://avalon.law.yale.edu/medieval/bullad.asp
    .
    Back to Drogheda and its roots: 

    Follow the historic roots of a global human issue: unjust assertion of power.  Has the Irish sense of injustice and anger at their overlords, got a stronger, real historic root, more than most.  Where profit-making religion itself is the pretext for injustice, is anger the greater.  Should the Irish ask for reparations from the Vatican? Idea, idea.  The ancient Milesians first laid claim to Ireland, see the Bard Amergin at http://www.amergin.net/songofamergin.html.  And, in time, the Normans and Catholic Gregorian reformers.
    .
    "For, although authors generally write that the Emperor Constantine, after his baptism, bestowed the islands of western Europe on Pope Sylvester, that did not give the Pope possession of Ireland, since no emperor that was ever in Rome, nor Constantine, had possession of Ireland. How, then, could there be any force in the right which the emperor might give to the Pope, to what was neither in his own possession nor in that of any emperor that succeeded him since?"
    Fair use,  http://www.exclassics.com/ceitinn/for56.htm

    Devorgilla. The role of the lady in the invasion of Ireland by the Normans.

    Henry II,  those centuries ago, perhaps never mentioned the background of his decision to seek permission to invade Ireland:  that the Irish Dermot, to whose aid Henry's man Strongbow ultimately came, with army; had had an affair with Devorgilla, a rival's wife, and that was why he ultimately lost his lands, see http://www.irelandseye.com/aarticles/history/events/dates/norman.shtm; http://www.ireland-information.com/articles/dermotmacmurrough-strongbow.htm
    .
    Thou hast signified to us, indeed, most beloved son in Christ, that thou dost desire to enter into the island of Ireland, in order to subject the people to the laws and to extirpate the vices that have there taken root, and that thou art willing to pay an annual pension to St. Peter of one penny from every house, and to preserve the rights of the churches in that land inviolate and entire.
    .
    We, therefore, seconding with the favour it deserves thy pious and laudable desire, and granting a benignant assent to thy petition, are well pleased that, for the enlargement of the bounds of the church. for the restraint of vice, for the correction of morals and the introduction of virtues, for the advancement of the Christian religion, thou shouldst enter that island, and carry out there the things that look to the honour of God and to its own salvation.
    .
    "And may the people of that land receive thee with honour, and venerate thee as their master; provided always that the rights of the churches remain inviolate and entire, and saving to St. Peter and the holy Roman Church the annual pension of one penny from each house.
    .
    "If, therefore, thou dost see fit to complete what thou hast conceived in thy mind, strive to imbue that people with good morals, and bring it to pass, as well through thyself as through those whom thou dost know from their faith, doctrine, and course of life to be fit for such a work, that the church may there be adorned, the Christian religion planted and made to grow, and the things which pertain to the honour of God and to salvation be so ordered that thou may'st merit to obtain an abundant and lasting reward from God, and on earth a name glorious throughout the ages. "
    .
    Christianize this "island of Saints" that was already Christian, after Patrick and other early Christian monks' works? It was already Christian, see http://www.exclassics.com/ceitinn/for57.htm.  Just not "Roman" branch.
    .
    .
    3.  What was Irish enslavement like.
    .
    Those who served their indenture then could establish themselves as planters and settlers; with the last shipment of Irish in the 1800's, some 30-80,000 were estimated to have arrived: many in their best clothes, and bringing their habits with them., see the Jamaica Gleaner site.  There were also Irish slave owners.

    But what was white slavery compared to black?  Force may be a matter of semantics; and reflect an ethnic prejudice.  We speak of involuntary indentured servitude for whites, but slavery for blacks?  Is that so? See http://www.raceandhistory.com/cgi-bin/forum/webbbs_config.pl/noframes/read/1638

    4.  How was it accomplished.
    .
    Oliver Cromwell, see  http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/oliver-cromwell.htm, was Lord Protector of England in 1655 - Article "Green Genes" clipped back in 2000 from a magazine that foolishly does not identify itself on the pages other than JULY/AUGUST 2000 and pages 54-58 (author Mic Moroney - check that - we saved that does not give its title.
    .
    While we find the source, we are interested that it states that Cromwell demanded this:
    .
    "a recruite of a thousande men, and a supply of younge Irish girls" and others with  no "settled course of industry" 
    .
    to populate the new colonies. Then, two weeks later, he asked his son, then Henry who was Major-General of British forces in Ireland, for 2000 more "young boys and girls" to take the place of 'maroons and negresses' on the slave plantations. Henry, says the article (we are still looking for the original letter) wrote back as to
    .
    "the younge women, although we must use force in takinge them up, yet it beinge so much for their own goode .. you may have such number as you shall thinke fitt..."
    .
    I do not see that letter or a response reference at http://www.olivercromwell.org/Letters_and_speeches/letters/Letter_index.htm
    .
    This objective, however,  is supported by a fair use quote from A Concise History of Barbados, by John R. Moore, at  http://jonpat.tripod.com/history.html
    .
    "Barbados had become a destination for military prisoners and Irish natives in the early years of the colony's growth. Oliver Cromwell "barbadosed" any Irish who refused to clear their land, while allowing other Irish to be kidnapped from the streets of Ireland and shipped to Barbados as slaves. Many West Country men were also exiled or "barbadosed" by Judge Jeffreys and were also sold as slaves or indentured servants to British planters, where they lived in slave conditions with no control over the number of years they had to serve.
     
    "The number of "barbadosed" Irish is not exact but estimates vary from as low as 12,000 to as high as 60,000. Persecuted Catholics from Ireland also worked the plantations."
    .
    Find a bibliography of Irish topics in Latin America at http://www.irlandeses.org/bibliocarib.htm. For surnames, see (Jamaica) http://www.thewildgeese.com/pages/jamone.html
    .
    .

    B. St. Patrick - Slave
    .
    .
    Invaders for thousands of years have plucked off slaves from Ireland - Rome included. The Irish and the Norse have a long history in this regard. Norse slaves were booty from raids beginning about the 8th-9th Centuries or so, but also included as a category those debtors who were working off debts, bondsmen, see  http://www.hurstwic.org/history/articles/society/text/social_classes.htm/.
    .
    Saint Patrick himself, born in Britain and Christian, was enslaved at age 16 and sent to Ireland.  See http://www.nytimes.com/1993/03/15/opinion/st-patrick-was-a-slave.html.  He escaped, went to Europe and ultimately back to his family in Britain (via a pirate ship seven years after?) see http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/03/090316-st-patricks-day-facts.html/ Slavery - a fact of life for millennia.
    .
    Read the National Geographic article to find how little we know of Patrick, and if he did much of anything at all, and consider the cultural needs of people to embellish, to personify, and the stories grew. Another topic.
    .
    .

    C.   Malcolm, the Irish Thrall. Iceland.  Slavery in the 900-1100's or so.  Icelandic Sagas. 
    .

    .
    1.  The Icelandic Sagas. 

    Find an overall database at http://www.sagadb.org.  For the Irish connection, look at one Norse saga in particular from Iceland,  Burnt Njal's Saga, http://www.sagadb.org/brennu-njals_saga.en. These events transpired at a time that precedes the Norman invasion of Ireland or Strongbow. This is the era of the Viking raiding in Ireland, a tale from Iceland.  This is not a story of any raiding, but rather of a community over time in Iceland, occasional trips back to Oslo, but essentially families, fighting, values, persons.
    .
    Malcolm, a slave or thrall from Ireland, features in the ancient Icelandic Saga, Burnt Njal's Saga.
    .
    Read The Burnt Njal Saga of Iceland at  The Icelandic Saga Database, at http://www.sagadb.org/brennu-njals_saga.en/.  Starting at chapter 47, there find Malcolm, a slave or thrall brought from Ireland - remember that the Norse raided and plundered Ireland and other areas for centuries.  Here is Malcolm in the list, his part not huge, but memorable in the tale:
    • Njal was a wise counselor, chief, among other chiefs, legally astute, a pillar who was killed, burned with his family inside their own house, all ruined, by those who had a grudge, insults had accelerated, honor became involved, and revenge, do read it all. 
    • There is another brave but more hotheaded character, Gunnar; 
    • his wife is the conniving Hallgerda; and 
    • Otkell, the rich but greedy man, and 
    • his brother Hallbjorn who owned Malcolm.
    • and Malcolm, the Irish Thrall
      .
    The gist:
    .
    .
    2.  Malcolm the Irish Thrall did not work well for his master, Hallbjorn. Master may not be the quite-right word, because in those days, the slave worked in a relationship with the owner, and there had to be give and take in the household. These were not plantations.
    .
    Malcolm and another member of the community, Hallbjorn's brother Otkell, developed a better relationship than Malcolm had with Hallbjorn.
    .
    So Otkell bought Malcolm from Hallbjorn. Hallbjorn was relieved at that. He scoffed that his brother Otkell was getting no bargain.  And sure enough, once bought by Otkell, Malcolm the Thrall started to slack off again.
     .
    Then it was Otkell who had bought the lemon, who wanted his money's worth.  How better than to pass off Malcolm onto someone else. So Otkell targeted and schnockered another member of the community,  Gunnar, into buying Malcolm.
    .
    .
    3.  Now, Otkell himself was no gem.  His behavior shows that Otkell was greedy and tight-fisted, in a culture that required sharing in bad times, for the community to survive, the me-first mentality of Otkell was not respected.
    .
    Gunnar, on the other hand, had been generous with his stores whenever he had enough for his own household, and some left over to share.  He was well respected.  He shared with others, he could expect others to share with him if he should need.
    .
    So when Gunnar,  in another season ran out of necessities, he came to Otkell.
    .
    Otkell himself had plenty.  He had enough left over from his own stores, after meeting his own needs, and could well have sold some to Gunnar, and times were hard.  Yet he refused to share with Gunnar. A bad play. 
    .
    .
    4.  Enter Njal, the hero of the overall tale.  Njal, community leader by agreement, respected as the good, and the wise, the just.  Njal himself then provided hay and meat to Gunnar, earning Gunnar's loyalty; and firming up the disgrace of Otkell.
    .
    But the story continues with this about Malcolm:
    .
    .
    5.  Plot develops. 
    .
    Enter Gunnar's wife, Hallgerda, the wife of the one that Otkell had turned away.  She is another fierce figure.  She is a saga revenge-seeker.
    .
    Hallgerda maneuvers Malcolm, now part of hers and Gunnar's household, into going back to Otkell's house and stealing food and burning the storehouse, and threatens him with death if he will not obey. Chapter 48.

    6. What is a poor slave to do? 
    .
    Malcolm does as he is directed (he is only a thrall) and steals from Otkell, but he is found out.  Here it gets interesting as to consequences.  There is much ado about not punishing Malcolm or Hallgerda, but resolving the matter with monetary awards, negotiated.  And that is done.  No incarceration, no execution.  Just pay, and pay.

    7.  The law appears to be a civil one: make the injured party whole again by taking money from the evil-doer, but don't incarcerate or execute. Not clear, but that is how it looks.
    .
    Sagas are a window into cultural practices, beliefs. Note that in Njal's Saga, the justice system of the Norse was not an eye for an eye, but a value compensation placed on goods and lives.There was no moralizing about an injustice - just pay out. Is ours any better where we impose religious right and wrong by divine edict on people?
    .
    This Thrall Malcolm is not the same as the Scots king Malcolm, of the same name, see Chapter 82.