With an update 2014
Monastic Traditions, Before and After Augustinian Reforms
Irish History Timeline focusing on Post-1150 ACE
For earlier era Timeline Pre-1150, see From Book of Kells to Synod of Kells.
At issue is our perspective on time itself, institutional persistence regardless of changing needs and facts, and Power. Ruins, ruins. How to place any of them in a chronology that makes sense. We found this site, and recommend NewYork's Channel 13, broadcasting, timeline at http://www.wnet.org/pressroom/release.php?get=106
1. Ruins -- Ecclesiastical Ireland. Adare's Friary is an example
We were here on our return to Shannon airport, but include it with the rest of Limerick, where we began. Is this so: Time always wins. Humans who pit themselves against Nature and The Trees have a heavy lift.
- Ireland's ecclesiastical ruins may look alike, but their eras, and what they signify, differ: Christianity was not all of one cloth. Irish engaged Christianity their way first, before Rome came along after its split with the Eastern Christians, the Orthodox. Irish Christianity, think St. Patrick, St. Finnian. Their examples led to the monastic, contemplative, individualistic, creative phase to, say, 1100. With Gregorian Reforms on the Continent; and the jurisdiction of Rome being asserted with its administrations and armies and Holy Roman Emperors, enforcements and regimentation became more important. And there was no longer choice. That seems to be broadly true.
The 11th Century Gregorian Reforms turned the face of Christianity from withdrawing from the world, the deeply meditative, the deeply spiritual ascetic; to a new philosophy. Get out there and change the world; or, in the alternative, become a monk and totally live within the monastery, no or little contact with the outside world; and only with strict permissions and limits.
"The Gregorian reform encourages the practice of Christian warfare in the pursuit of providing 'right order in the world' and establishes religious enthusiasm in all of Christendom."
See http://usna.edu/Users/history/abels/hh315/timeline%20gregorian%20reform.htm, Timeline entry at 1073 AD.
- The Reforms were an outgrowth and furtherance of the mindset and regulations of Charlemagne in establishing the Holy Roman Empire on the Continent, in 802 AD, but with authority and jurisdiction more strongly in the Pope, not the Emperor. Is that so? See http://historymedren.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=historymedren&cdn=education&tm=15&gps=209_11_1366_564&f=00&tt=14&bt=0&bts=0&zu=http%3A//www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/medieval/bullad.htm
It makes a difference because the Pope's increasing militance and crusades and moneyraising and identity forging on the Continent led directly to the invasion of the Anglo Normans in Ireland, and they never left.
Look back, as you think of the tree of the papacy overcoming over time even the very stones that leaned on it for support.
This begins with the 1100's; needed is a timeline from far earlier, from St. Patrick in the 400's.
Pope Adrian IV, in 1155, issued a Bull authorizing King Henry of England to invade Ireland to shape it up according to Roman Church (HRE) standards. Why?
1. Not only did Henry want this power in his pocket, he and the Pope both had money to be made. In exchange for the permission, the Pope got well paid, very well paid. The "Laudibiliter" provided for a king of tax to be paid to him, per capita, see http://www.thewildgeese.com/pages/adrianiv.htmlSee http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/source/geraldwales1.asp
2. But Henry had been himself petitioned by one Dermot, a king in Ireland, for help to get his lands back, from those who deposed him, after his affair with a lovely lady someone else's wife, is that so?
So, invasion authorized, an instigating event was very human indeed, it fit the Pope and the English King to indulge, and so they did. What a change, for Christianity and the world because the new Christianity was a totally different entity, as a centralized, power institution.
- Irish Christianity had been decentralized, its monasteries contemplative even if they did compete with each other and engage in raiding in early years. See it and comment at http://historymedren.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=historymedren&cdn=education&tm=15&gps=209_11_1366_564&f=00&tt=14&bt=0&bts=0&zu=http%3A//www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/medieval/bullad.htm.
Henry did so some 16 years later, launching the Anglo-Norman invasion of this nation. In came Roman regimentation, regulations and rules, back in the 1100's. And, of course, Henry paid the Church for the privilege, an ongoing income stream to the Pope's coffers in exchange for the Bull. FN 1
Back to Adare.
So, this old stone, now overwelmed, is on the grounds of a Franciscan Friary, not in the early tradition of contemplation and dedication, but built by the Earl of Kildare 1464-1466, a building that was part of the institutional sweep after the age of isolated monastic activities, see http://www.discoverireland.ie/Arts-Culture-Heritage/adare-franciscan-friary/49921. The date of the stone itself? Have to go back.
- Christianity never recovered from this infusion of Rome's ecclesiastical authoritarian religious zeal - enter the crusades, the Northern Crusades against the people of the north of Europe, the Middle East. Certainly no recovery for the side of Christianity that early Irish Christians and others had pursued, then who found themselves righteously invaded by papal armies and the like. 1096-1099 AD, for example.
- The First Crusade. It succeeded and Jerusalem was taken and Latin areas were established in the East (which?). And, meanwhile, the Normans (who, the lords in Wales we now find. had been invading Ireland here and there on their own, even before Henry) then followed through in their aid to Dermot and invaded smartly, see http://historymedren.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=historymedren&cdn=education&tm=3921&gps=161_9_1366_564&f=00&tt=14&bt=0&bts=0&zu=http%3A//www.britannia.com/history/docs/giraldus.html
Nothing is simple. What causes what? History of the Anglo - Norman Invasion of Ireland.
This step backward from religion into militance authorizing , was introduced earlier as well: permission to kill unbelievers or whoever else without penalty did not start with Adrian.
a. Pope Leo IV, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/leo4-ind850.aspin 850 granted the indulgence to the Franks, Pope John in 878, a few years after Charlemagne's "crusades" against the northern people of Europe, massacre at Sachsenhain in 872 est.
b. Pope John VIII, see http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/john2-ind878.asp; If you die in these battles, you will have eternal life, your sins forgiven. -
c. Read Pope Urban - "All who die by the way, whether by land or by sea, or in battle against the pagans, shall have immediate remission of sins". See http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/urban2-5vers.asp.
We still live with the 3 conditions that make murder permissible --
So the policy evolved. Killling is fine, indulgences for the killer, dispensation, forgiveness of sins, eternal life --
" * * * the introduction of a new ideology of Christian warfare in which wars undertaken --
1) under the authority of the pope,
2) for the protection or in defense of the Church and Christianity, and
3) under a solemn vow would be regarded by the Church as meritorious acts akin to pilgrimages and earn the participants indulgences (remission of the temporal penalties of sin)."
- The Irish Christians had, however, not been totally peacable among themselves; and inter-monastery raiding was not uncommon. Also, the Irish themselves raided the monasteries. See http://www.deremilitari.org/resources/articles/fitzpatrick.htm
Does anyone care any more? Irish history, old stuff.
Now all of that, representing the New Ecclesiastical Enforcement Order, is a ruin surrounded by a golf course. There is another "Trinitarian" Monastery from 1293 noted at http://www.myguideireland.com/adare-heritage-centre-and-desmond-castle-tour, the "White Abbey" because monks wore white robes; that may have signified Cistercians, see http://www.sacred-destinations.com/reference/cistercians. It later the was known as the"Black Abbey" when it became Benedictine (Augustinian?) and the monks wore black robes.
Are these at this White-Black friary one and the same or different from this Franciscan Friary? Ireland's ruins have more to say than that. So much of history is lost with such brief references.
FN 1 When did these large ecclesiastical Orders come to Ireland? It wasn't until 1100 AD.
Christianity was well-established in Ireland without the Roman overlay. Did creativity stop with the overlay? See the chronology:
3. EARLY HISTORY OF ECCLESIASTICAL IRELAND
432 AD. Christianity comes to Ireland, through Patrick? See the timeline at http://www.wnet.org/pressroom/release.php?get=106. Patrick dies 492, but leaves documentation in form of a letter and other items
550-650 AD. Irish monasticism, a rural, highly varied expression of Christianity, expands and flowers
563 AD - Columcille, known as St. Columba, founds the monastery at Iona, and it becomes a focal point for outreach, Christian missionary work in Scotland and elsewhere in Europe
700 AD - Many monasteries become very large, wealthy and influential; Armagh as the center of Irish Christianity; Ui Niall becomes High King, and Armagh set as center of Irish Christianity and civil culture
794 AD - first Viking raids -- but this does not disrupt Irish Christianity because starting years before, the monasteries were being raided by other Irish, for their wealth, and also raided by other monasteries. http://www.deremilitari.org/resources/articles/fitzpatrick.htm
800 AD - flowering of Irish scholarship, in Ireland and Europe much sought after, even by Charlemagne
820-847 AD - Bishop of Cashel raids other monasteries and attacks other abbots (he is Feidlimid Mac Crimthainn and he is also the King of Munster) in an effort to get Ui Niall off the throne and become High King
841 - Vikings settle in Dublin, make alliances with some Kings; raid and settle at Wexford, Waterford, Limerick.
941 - Brian Boru becomes King, focuses power much as European Kings had earlier
976 - King Brian Boru routs the Vikings from Limerick
1014 - Brian is killed at Clontarf near Dublin, and go on to modern times at http://www.wnet.org/pressroom/release.php?get=106
1054 - Great Schism -- Rome was now on its own, had to build up authority
4. The "Reform" (read "Dictatorship") of the Irish Church by Rome
So when was it that the early Christians were "reformed" by the Roman Catholics? Read the timeline -- http://usna.edu/Users/history/abels/hh315/timeline%20gregorian%20reform.htm
Note that the coming of early monks sent by Augustine monks (Augustinians as an Order did not arrive until the 1200's, see http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac70.)
This signaled "reforms" ordered by the Roman Church as to the wayward, individualist and compassionate loose-organization of the early Irish Christians. Monasteries did indeed improve agriculture, provide for scriptoria to preserve and copy books, but they also found "last rites" as a sacrament an ideal way to get property -- How rich did they then become? " In England they owned one fifth of all its cultivable land." Nice. See http://www.metanexus.net/magazine/ArticleDetail/tabid/68/id/10539/Default.aspx
Earlier monasteries had wealth, see the raids by other monasteries and abbots and other Irish as to the earlier structures, http://www.deremilitari.org/resources/articles/fitzpatrick.htm, but nothing like the wealth that was possible for the church now through the "reforms."
5. The power of discipline, conformity
Find the rules of differing Orders:
Read the Rule of St. Benedict at http://www.osb.org/rb/text/toc.html At what cost was that regimentation, how like political dictatorships as to individual thought? Is that so?
The sensory deprivation of living in cells, minimal diet, and sleep deprivation of up to do services on rigid schedules, "rules" - today we would call the process brainwashing.
Compare the Rule of St. Francis at http://www.osb.org/rb/text/toc.html. Somewhat more humana, but still not representing the pre-Augustinian reform Christianity in Ireland. Now, which Order would the Tea Party support?
1098 A.D. - Cistercian monastic order founded on the Continent, see http://usna.edu/Users/history/abels/hh315/timeline%20gregorian%20reform.htm
Cistercian Rule: Strict obedience to the Benedictine Rule (need to clarify);
- "separation from secular influence (no peasants serving the monastery;
- rather lay brothers--peasants in orders, who served God by manual labor.)
- Simplicity--churches and other buildings unadorned and undecorated; crucifixes only of cheap, plain material--no gold and silver ornamentation.
- Accepted only uncultivated land.
- Refused oblates.
- Had to be 16 to become a monk."
1100 A.D. -- Rome begins a propaganda effort against the Irish Christians. On the continent, Gregory (the Gregorian Reforms ) change the Church into a mold controlled by Rome. All this is summarized from the chronology at http://www.wnet.org/pressroom/release.php?get=106. No more independence to be tolerated as to the Irish Church
1113 A.D. - Cistercian Order acquires vast new properties under Bernard de Clairvaux. Number of houses grew from 5 to 393 at the time of his death in 1153. In 1143, Cistercians come to Ireland.
- As an aside "Dermot MacMurrough, King of Leinster, abducts Dervorgilla, the wife of Tiernan Ua Ruairc. Dermot and Dervorgilla are said to be lovers and the whole of Ireland learns of the affair much to Ua Ruairc's embarrassment." See Thirteen site.
And the centuries-old conflict begins.
We came on this ruin without use of guidebook. Take back roads rather than the motorways. Find the many ruins, old churches, castles. Free to roam. No guardrails usually, just a sign saying to be careful.
It is easy to find Roman Catholic sites on the later holy places, after their dominance was assured, here is one that begins with 1100 AD, http://earlychristianireland.org/index.html. Or http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/medieval-monks.htm.
Our interest, however, is with the "reforms" required by the Romans when they subjugated the existing Christians in Ireland. Celtic Ireland is also easy to find, see http://www.wesleyjohnston.com/users/ireland/past/pre_norman_history/iron_age.html.
Go to http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac70 There find accounts of the charisma of early founders of the monasteries, most now remembered as saints. Is it so that the Great Saints, those beyond mere founding of monastic orders but in hearts of the faithful, those predating 700 in Ireland. Those great saints predate the Roman reform programs,
- St. Finnian in Meath and his monastery, Clonard.
- St. Ciaran who founded Clonmacnois, on the Shannon River,
- St. Brendan, founding Clonfort (Galway). And
- St. Columba, Columcille, who then went to Scotland, in 563, to Iona. Lindisfarne was an offshoot, off Northumberland. And
- St. Patrick.
Illuminated manuscripts: 7th - 11th century AD
Irish monks of the 7th and 8th century create illuminated manuscripts which are among the greatest treasures of Celtic and early Christian art.
Read more: http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac70#ixzz1XUAZn4m3
Human interest in graveyards: It is reflected in all the words used to find them. See hundreds of words/synonyms for a graveyard, including Poe's 100- at http://www.houseofusher.net/graveyar.html.